Birds of paradise, (paradisaeidae family), have approximately 45 species of small to medium-sized forest birds, rivalled only by a few pheasants and hummingbirds in colour and in the bizarre shape of the males’ plumage. Courting males perform for hours on a chosen perch or in a cleared space on the forest floor. After mating, the plain females generally make the nest and raise the one or two young unaided.
Papua New Guinea, home to birds of paradise species (paradisaeidae family), is widely acknowledge by the 1000 different tribes in their traditional dressing and costumes by using the bird of paradise plumes in their head dresses and in their arm-bends when dancing or during traditional rituals. Birds of paradise occur in Papua New Guinea highlands and on nearby islands; species called manucodes and riflebirds are found also in Australia. The largest manucode is the 45 cm curl crested manucode (Manucodia comrii). The trumpetbird (Phonygammus keraudrenii) is 25 to 32 cm long and has head tufts as well as pointed neck feathers. It is named for the male’s loud call. Others having special names include sicklebills and standardwings.
Among the most notable birds of paradise are the plumebirds-the seven species of Paradisaea, 29 to 46 cm long. Their central tail feathers are elongated as wires or twisted narrow ribbons, and their filmy flank plumes can be raised and brought forward over the back, hiding the wings. The 12 wired bird of paradise (Seleucidis melanoleuca, sometimes S. ignotus) is a short tailed, 33 cm bird with flank plumes elaborated as forward curving wires. Grouped as flagbirds are the six plumed birds of paradise-the four species of Parotia and the King of Saxony’s bird of paradise (Pteridophora alberti). The former have elaborate flank plumes as well as six flag tipped wires projecting back from the head; the latter has a shoulder cape and a pair of long head streamers composed of about 40 squarish lobes with an enameled appearance.
The superb bird of paradise (Lophorina superba) has a spreading breast shield and a broad cape that turns into a head fan. The magnificent bird of paradise (Diphyllodes magnificus) and Wilson’s bird of paradise (D. respublica) are caped and have two wirelike tail feathers curving outward; in Wilson’s the crown is bare and has a “cross of Christ” pattern. The king bird of paradise (Cicinnurus regius), only 13 to 17 cm long, has similar but flag-tipped tailwires and fanlike side plumes.
In the five species of long tailed birds of paradise (Astrapia), males are shining black, sometimes with iridescent ruffs, and have long graduated tails of broad black or black and white feathers; total length may be 80 to 115 cm.
The other “paradise” birds are far less colourful. Among them are the sickle crested, or mocha breasted, bird of paradise (Cnemophilus macgregorii); the wattle billed, or golden silky, bird of paradise (Loboparadisea sericea); and Loria’s, or Lady Macgregor’s, bird of paradise (Loria loriae) three species formerly classified as bowerbirds.
Riflebirds are three species of the genus Ptiloris, named perhaps for resemblance of the males’ plumage to an early day British rifleman’s uniform. The name has also been attributed to the calls of Queen Victoria’s riflebird (P. victoriae) and the paradise riflebird (P. paradiseus)-prolonged hisses, like the passage of bullets through the air.